03 Apr

How does Pico Racer work?

After I released Pico Racer, lots of people have thought it looks nice and is an achievement. I don’t think it does anything special or pushes the limits of the Pico-8. Here I try to explain the small tricks I used in the game. If you want a general tutorial about pseudo 3D racers in general then please check out Louis Gorenfeld’s excellent page about the subject, I try to focus on Pico-8 specific stuff.

  1. Road rendering
  2. Sprite rendering
  3. Car rendering and sprite perspective
  4. Night levels and color fades
  5. Pico-8 performance

Road rendering

Usually, with pseudo 3D racers, the road is drawn using a simple trick: there is a full screen graphic of a straight road with perspective and every horizontal line gets shifted left or right, more the further down the road the current horizontal line is. This makes the road look like it’s curving. Palette tricks are used to create the familiar stripes that give an illusion of motion.

With Pico-8, there is no space for a precalculated road asset but we can draw scaled sprites instead. The road in Pico Racer is simply a series of one pixel high sprites scaled by distance, one for both track edges and two used to draw the road surface. The road is a true textured plane instead of a distorted image. Curves works similarly to the above classic method.

Additionally, when rendering the road (from bottom of the screen to the middle of the screen) we iterate along the track data. This is very approximate because we just take the screen Y, calculate the Z and figure out which part of the track the horizontal line belongs to. A more accurate way would be to iterate Z instead of the screen space Y and when Z projected to the screen gives a different screen Y coordinate, we would draw the horizontal line. But going along Y gives a good enough effect, the player will get a good enough hint what is coming towards him.

The road X position on screen is stored for each Y coordinate which we will use later to render the sprites correctly along the road. Note: this gives a slightly crude motion to sprites when they are far away because the X offset are stored per each screen Y coordinate instead of Z. As long as the action is fast, the player will not notice anything.

The road texture graphic used per line is selected so that the further away the line is, the lighter the colors in the texture. Dithering is used to mask the exact position where the texture changes.

One texture

One texture

Multiple textures

Multiple textures

Dithered textures

Dithered textures

This is done because of two reasons: in nature, colors get lighter the further away something is (actually, tint to sky blue beacuse there is air between you and the faraway object) and also so that the road sides and lane markings won’t strobe as much.


Lots of flicker

Less flicker

Less flicker

Sprite rendering

Sprites are rendered basically using the same idea as for the horizontal road lines. First, Z is used to determine the zoom factor. Secondly, sprite X position (on screen) is divided by Z and the road offset for the sprite screen Y coordinate is used to offset the sprites so that they are arranged along the road.

Car rendering and sprite perspective

There is one very important and unavoidable problem with sprites and 3D: the sprites always face the camera. This is not a problem with orthogonal 2D projection, since there is only one way the camera looks at. Everything is on one flat plane. But with a perspective projection the sprites start to look like they are always rotated to face the camera unless you take the time and draw multiple versions of the sprite from different angles. This is how Origin’s Wing Commander and Lucasarts’ Their Finest Hour work. But this takes a lot of effort and more importantly: it needs a lot of space for the sprites.

In Pico Racer, sprite perspective is handled so that most sprites (trees, warning signs) have no perspective. This works reasonably well due to two facts: the objects are two-dimensional (warning signs) AND they are always located to the sides so that the angle to them would be pretty much the same at all times. Only the player car and the opponent cars have visible perspective, since that’s what you look at the most. Also, the cars (especially the player car) have a lot of sideways motion which would immediately make the cars’ perspective look odd.

No perspective

No perspective

Sprite perspective

Sprite perspective

Full perspective

Full perspective

The cars use two tricks to fake a convincing perspective: firstly, they have multiple versions of the sprites. Secondly, the cars are built of a number of separate sprites located at slightly different distances. I borrowed this idea from Lankhor’s Vroom and it works well with cars that have no flat sides and instead have clear “sections” – just like F1 cars have. The cars have the rear sprite, the front sprite and a middle section. When the car moves sideways, in addition to showing the sprite from an angle, the rear wheels have some sideways motion against with respect to the front wheels. And, while not a perspective thing, the front section is moved sideways when the player turns left or right, when the road has a curve or when the car bounces giving the illusion the car is yawing and pitching.

Parts of the car

Parts of the car

Night levels and color fades

The color fades in Pico Racer are done using the palette mapping feature in Pico-8 and a few lookup tables. Basically, the tables tell which color to use for each of the 16 colors at a set brightness. Hand picking the colors gives the possibility (actually, with the fixed palette the fade will be tinted) to tint the fades so that they mimic sunset and so on. The road, sky and the sprites use a different lookup table each so that e.g. the road has markings visible even at pitch black and the sky and the horizon have a slightly different fade curve (because nature works like that).

Palette lookup table

Palette lookup table

It all works something like this:


 FOR C=1,15 DO

On night levels, the cars are have rear lights drawn after it is dark enough. They are simply two extra sprites drawn without using the fade lookup palette.

Pico-8 performance

The Pico-8 is more than enough to do all the math and rendering in one frame (30 FPS). In fact, only the sprites rendering seems to be a bottleneck. Mainly, when sprites are zoomed, their area grows exponentially and the area is used to calculate how long Pico-8 takes to draw the sprite. Sometimes even large but fully clipped (i.e. outside the screen or the clip rectangle) sprites slow everything down. I found the combined area of the sprites is more important than the number of sprites.

In Pico Racer, I capped sprites so that they never zoom larger than 100 %. This has minimal effect on visuals, although you will easily notice it if you know it’s happening. Since e.g. the cars suddenly stop growing as they get closer to the camera, your brain thinks the cars in fact start shrinking. Likewise, since there is a short range where all the cars are drawn equally large, a car a bit further away looks larger than a car closer to the camera, everything because your brain expects things further down the road to be a bit smaller.

As for performance, limiting sprite size gives a big performance boost since as the sprites come very close to the camera and they get larger and larger, they very quickly get zoomed 200 %, 300 %, 600 % and so on. Further away they are just a dozen of pixels for a very long distance.

Since the area of sprites is the main contributing factor, this makes rendering the road quite efficient because every horizontal line is just one pixel high even though there are four sprites per horizontal line and 64 lines total.

20 Oct

Prince of Persia on the C64


This is so awesome.

It is almost in sync with the Amiga version (they use the same joystick input to play the game on an Amiga emulator and on a C64 emulator):


Wow. You can get it here and read the author’s dev blog here. Read a better article at RGCD (this was just a heads-up).

11 Oct

Chiptune Drums

Ilkke asked me how to create a nice chiptune snare. This question escalated into a challenge to write a little tutorial about how to make less boring chiptune drums. I used Klystrack to experiment but the basic theory holds for most programs and sound chips. You can hear the results below.


We’ll start with the easiest drum. Generally, just a stable noise waveform with a sharpish attack and a longer decay is enough. If a filter is available, filtering out the low frequencies with a high or band-pass filter helps to make the other rhythm sounds stand out – you don’t want the hi-hat to drown out the snare. For a shaker type sound, make the attack phase longer.

Kick drum

Kick drum is a quite simple drum as well, if you need a basic techno kick or a longer 808-style sine wave oomph. The theory behind a basic kick goes like this: start high, finish low. Make the amplitude and the frequency drop sharply. If you hear a sharp decay in the frequency, you will perceive it like something punching through the other sounds. See an example below, it’s a generic 909 bass drum.

However, if we look at a more interesting (and louder) kick sound, we will notice it’s not just a sine wave. There are higher frequencies there even though they are not that pronounced. A good thing to do is to combine the soft sine wave (triangle wave is a nice approximation) with something sharper and louder in the first moments of the kick. Try having a few milliseconds worth of square wave and/or noise in the beginning of the drum. Then continue as usual with a low-frequency tail.

To simulate a distorted drum, use the square waveform. As in the example below, you can see a hard-limited sine wave looks like square wave:

An analysis of the kick drum sound used in Auf Wiedersehen Monty confirms the ideas discussed above:


  1. it begins with a triangle wave, which is active for 20 mS [one program tick]

  2. thereafter there is a short noise part for 20 mS

  3. it ends with a pulse wave, the frequency and amplitude gets lower

Snare drum

Creating a convincing snare drum starts to get a bit complicated. It helps if we once again look at what is actually happening in a good snare sound.

As you can see, the snare sound consists of noise and a lower sine wave sound, the low frequency hum is the drum membrane vibrating. Also, the beginning of the hit the low sine wave is louder than the noisy rattle which adds a nice punch. We can emulate this by having a short pure triangle wave tone (use square wave to make it louder) in the beginning and change it to noise a moment later. As you can see, the waveform now looks a bit more like the original and has a beefy attack.

Another method to make an interesting snare often used by e.g. Rob Hubbard (I think) is to vary the noise frequency with a multi-octave arpeggio. If you need a real world analogue, you could think the cycling noise frequency (low-hi-low-hi-etc.) as reverberation.

Closing thoughts and examples

So, what did we learn? Nature is interesting because it has tons of variation and is never static or perfect. For chiptune drums, this means: never use a single waveform or frequency.

Audio clip: Adobe Flash Player (version 9 or above) is required to play this audio clip. Download the latest version here. You also need to have JavaScript enabled in your browser.

  1. Kick: Triangle wave only

  2. Kick: Square wave

  3. Kick: Square wave attack, triangle wave delay

  4. Snare: Noise mixed with square and triangle, pure noise decay

  5. Snare: Arpeggiated noise

03 Sep

What to do when Catalyst Control Center won’t load?

Short answer: replace CCC with ATI Tray Tools. The software has the most common stuff like setting anti-alias options and resolution and lots more for tweaking. And it’s very light-weight in comparison.

In my case, I wanted to disable forced anti-aliasing so that the enemy outlines in World of Tanks were visible. A well-known bug in the game with a working solution, but an another well-known “feature” in the video software made working around it impossible as I couldn’t access the video settings.

The most dorky thing with CCC is that while there’s a ton of trouble with it, it seems the install procedure is the real reason for it not working. In my case, it was probably because of missing libraries and so the software refused to start (the only hint was an error message in Event Viewer: Could not find Type [ATI.ACE.CLI.Component.Dashboard.Dashboard] from [CLI.Component.Dashboard]).

Many tutorials on how to fix this is to reinstall CCC and the drivers but I found this won’t work and is very annoying even if it did work. So, I recommend skipping that and use this little tool instead. Thank you Ray Adams, no thanks ATI/AMD.

25 Jul

Android NDK and SDL_RWops

Note: There’s now a patch for SDL that makes the same possible on older Androids as well.

The Android NDK makes it possible to use SDL to code Android apps. The aliens.c example bundled with the Android SDL port is fine and dandy except it reads data from /sdcard/data and it has to be pushed manually on the device. A nicer approach is to use the standard SDL way to load data from weird sources: with the SDL_RWops struct. We can use the Android AssetManager object to read data from the APK file (the assets directory in the project), Android 2.3 comes with <android/asset_manager.h> that has the needed helper NDK stuff.

Now, the SDL example is for Android 1.5 (or 1.6, I forget) which means it doesn’t use NativeActivity but instead rolls its own Java wrapper. That means we don’t have simple access to the asset manager — NativeActivity makes this easy because it calls the native code with all the useful stuff ready in a struct android_app — so we have to look it up ourselves.

In short:

  1. Get access to AAssetManager

    1. Using NativeActivity, it’s in struct android_app passed to android_main()

    2. If struct android_app is not available (as in the SDL example), store JNI environment in a global variable in the SDL startup code and use it in your code to get AssetManager

  2. Use AAsset_RWFromAsset() defined below to get an SDL_RWops to a file inside the assets directory

We have to modify the SDL startup method defined in the library source code:

SDL_android_main.cpp (line 19-ish)

JNIEnv *g_env;

extern "C" void Java_org_libsdl_app_SDLActivity_nativeInit(JNIEnv* env, jclass cls, jobject obj)
    // Store the environment for later use.
    g_env = env;

    /* This interface could expand with ABI negotiation, calbacks, etc. */
    SDL_Android_Init(env, cls);

    /* Run the application code! */
    int status;
    char *argv[2];
    argv[0] = strdup("SDL_app");
    argv[1] = NULL;
    status = SDL_main(1, argv);

    /* We exit here for consistency with other platforms. */


Note: fatal() is a macro that invokes the Android logging interfaces, much like the LOGE() macro.

#include "android_rwops.h"
#include <android/asset_manager_jni.h>
#include <jni.h>

// g_env is set in SDL_android_main.cpp
extern JNIEnv *g_env;

// This function retrieves a static member of SDLActivity called mAssetMgr
// which is initialized in the onCreate() method like so:
// ...
//   mAssetMgr = getAssets();
// ...
// You can also call the getAssets() method from the native code.

AAssetManager * get_asset_manager()
	jclass sdlClass = (*g_env)->FindClass(g_env, "org/libsdl/app/SDLActivity");

	if (sdlClass == 0)
		fatal("org/libsdl/app/SDLActivity not found.");
		return NULL;

	jfieldID assman = (*g_env)->GetStaticFieldID(g_env, sdlClass, 
                          "mAssetMgr", "Landroid/content/res/AssetManager;");

	if (assman == 0)
		fatal("Could not find mAssetMgr.");
		return NULL;

	jobject assets = (*g_env)->GetStaticObjectField(g_env, sdlClass, assman);

	if (assets == 0)
		fatal("Could not get mAssetMgr.");
		return NULL;

	return AAssetManager_fromJava(g_env, assets);

int main(int argc, char **argv)
  AAssetManager *assets = get_asset_manager();

  // You should check the return value, here we assume logo.png is found
  SDL_RWops *rw = AAsset_RWFromAsset(assets, "image.bmp");

  // Do whatever you want with the rwops
  GfxSurface *i = SDL_LoadBMP_RW(rw, 1);



#pragma once

#ifdef _cplusplus
extern "C" {

#include "SDL_rwops.h"
#include <android/asset_manager.h>

SDL_RWops * AAsset_RWFromAsset(AAssetManager *mgr, const char *filename);

#ifdef _cplusplus


#include "android_rwops.h"

static SDLCALL long aa_rw_seek(struct SDL_RWops * ops, long offset, int whence)
	return AAsset_seek((AAsset*)ops->hidden.unknown.data1, offset, whence);

static SDLCALL size_t aa_rw_read(struct SDL_RWops * ops, void *ptr, size_t size, size_t maxnum)
	return AAsset_read((AAsset*)ops->hidden.unknown.data1, ptr, maxnum * size) / size;

static SDLCALL int aa_rw_close(struct SDL_RWops * ops)

	return 0;

SDL_RWops * AAsset_RWFromAsset(AAssetManager *mgr, const char *filename)
	AAsset *asset = AAssetManager_open(mgr, filename, AASSET_MODE_RANDOM);

	if (!asset)
		return NULL;
	SDL_RWops *ops = SDL_AllocRW();
	if (!ops)
		return NULL;
	ops->hidden.unknown.data1 = asset;
	ops->read = aa_rw_read;
	ops->write = NULL;
	ops->seek = aa_rw_seek;
	ops->close = aa_rw_close;
	return ops;